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Micale Cunningham

Global History

Research Overview

Mical Raz, MD, PhD, MSHP, completed her medical training at Tel Aviv University, from where she also received a PhD in history of medicine. Before moving to the US for a postdoctoral fellowship at Yale, she worked at the Tel Aviv Medical Center and volunteered with Physicians for Human Rights. She completed her residency in Internal Medicine at Yale New Haven Hospital in 2015, followed by a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania. She is also a practicing hospitalist at URMC at Strong Memorial Hospital, and is board certified in internal medicine.

She is the author of The Lobotomy Letters: The Making of American Psychosurgery (University of Rochester 2013), which was awarded the Pressman-Burroughs Wellcome Career Development Award. Her second book, What's Wrong with the Poor? Race, Psychiatry and the War on Poverty (UNC 2013), was a 2015 Choice Outstanding Academic Title. Her third book Abusive Policies: How the American Child Welfare System Lost its Way was published in late 2020. Her current interests including child welfare reform and the movement to abolish child protective services.

Selected Op-Eds and Popular Writing

  • Raz M, “ Family Separation Doesn’t Just Happen at the Border,” Made By History, Washington Post, January 30, 2019. https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/01/30/family-separation-doesnt-just-happen-border/
  • Raz, M “What We Get Wrong About the Poverty Gap In Education,” Made by History, Washington Post, July 2, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/made-by-history/wp/2018/07/02/what-we-get-wrong-about-the-poverty-gap-in-education/
  • Raz, M “More Mandatory Reporting Won’t Keep Children Safe From Predators” Made by History, Washington Post, May 1 ,2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/made-by-history/wp/2018/05/01/more-mandatory-reporting-wont-keep-children-safe-from-predators/
  • Raz, M and Doroshow, D. “Wordsworth Case Shows it's Time to Rethink 'Treatment' for Juveniles, Philadelphia Inquirer, November 3, 2016. http://www.philly.com/philly/opinion/20161103_Commentary__Wordsworth_case_shows_it_s_time_to_rethink__treatment__for_juveniles.html
  • Raz, M. “DHS Must Rethink Care of Children and Families”, Philadelphia Inquirer, September 16, 2016. http://www.philly.com/philly/opinion/20160916_Commentary__DHS_must_rethink_care_of_children_and_families.html

Graduate Research Fields

I offer the following fields for graduate research: History of Psychiatry, History of Public Health, Child Welfare. For more information on our MA and PhD programs, see our graduate program page.

I am accepting new graduate student advisees for our MA and PhD programs.

Courses Offered (subject to change)

  • HIST 167M: Unequal, Unjust: 100 Years of Racism in American Public Health
  • HIST 373W/473: Politics and Policies in the U.S. Health Care System, Syllabus
  • PHLT 116: Introduction to the U.S. Health System, Syllabus

Selected Publication Covers

More info..


Selected Publications

  • Doroshow, D, Gambino M, and Raz, M, 'New Directions in the Historiography of Psychiatry,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 2019 Jan 1;74(1):57-84.
  • Raz M. and Beatty, B., “Replacing the 'Word Gap' with Non-stigmatizing Approaches to Early Literacy and Language Building,” forthcoming, Pediatrics 2018;142(6), e20181992.
  • Raz, M. “Psychiatrists and the Transformation of Juvenile Justice in Philadelphia, 1965-72”, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 2018 Volume 73, Issue 4: 437–463.
  • Raz, M. “Lessons from History: Parents Anonymous and Child Abuse Prevention Policy,” Pediatrics December, 2017, 140(6).
  • Raz, M. “Unintended Consequences of Expanded Mandatory Reporting Laws,” Pediatrics, April 2017, 139 (4), 2016-3511.
  • Raz, M. Treating Addiction or Reducing Crime? Methadone Maintenance and Drug Policy under the Nixon Administration, Journal of Policy History, 2017, 29(1): 58–86
  • Raz, M. Deprived of Touch: How Maternal and Sensory Deprivation Theory Converged in Shaping Early Debates over Autism, History of the Human Sciences, 2014, 27(2): 75-96.
  • Raz, M. The Deprivation Riots: Psychiatry as Politics in the 1960s, Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 2013, 21(6):345-50.
  • Raz, Mical. The Lobotomy Letters: the Making of American Psychosurgery. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2015. http://www.urpress.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=14161
  • Raz, Mical. Whats Wrong with the Poor?: Psychiatry, Race, and the War on Poverty. Place of publication not identified: Univ Of North Carolina Pr, 2016.
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search:
List of PDB id codes

1WYL, 2CO8

AliasesMICAL1, MICAL, MICAL-1, NICAL, microtubule associated monooxygenase, calponin and LIM domain containing 1
External IDsOMIM: 607129MGI: 2385847HomoloGene: 11246GeneCards: MICAL1
Gene location (Human)
Chr.Chromosome 6 (human)[1]
Band6q21Start109,444,062 bp[1]
End109,465,968 bp[1]
Gene location (Mouse)
Chr.Chromosome 10 (mouse)[2]
Band10 10 B2Start41,476,314 bp[2]
End41,487,032 bp[2]
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
Gene ontology
Molecular functionSH3 domain binding
oxidoreductase activity
actin binding
oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, NAD(P)H as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
FAD binding
Rab GTPase binding
GO:0001948 protein binding
metal ion binding
protein kinase binding
monooxygenase activity
NAD(P)H oxidase activity
actin filament binding
Cellular componentcytoplasm
intermediate filament
hippocampal mossy fiber expansion
intercellular bridge
cell membrane
actin cytoskeleton
Biological processnegative regulation of protein phosphorylation
actin filament depolymerization
sulfur oxidation
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
negative regulation of apoptotic process
oxidation-reduction process
cytoskeleton organization
signal transduction
regulation of regulated secretory pathway
blood coagulation
Sources:Amigo / QuickGO
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 6: 109.44 – 109.47 MbChr 10: 41.48 – 41.49 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Blueprint product. NEDD9-interacting protein with calponin homology and LIM domains is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MICAL1gene.[5][6]


MICAL1 has been shown to interact with NEDD9[5] and RAB1A.[7]


  1. ^ abcGRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135596 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ abcGRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000019823 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^'Human PubMed Reference:'. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^'Mouse PubMed Reference:'. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ abSuzuki T, Nakamoto T, Ogawa S, Seo S, Matsumura T, Tachibana K, Morimoto C, Hirai H (Apr 2002). 'MICAL, a novel CasL interacting molecule, associates with vimentin'. J Biol Chem. 277 (17): 14933–41. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111842200. PMID11827972.
  6. ^'Entrez Gene: MICAL1 microtubule associated monoxygenase, calponin and LIM domain containing 1'.
  7. ^Weide, Thomas; Teuber Julia; Bayer Michael; Barnekow Angelika (Jun 2003). 'MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins'. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. United States. 306 (1): 79–86. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00918-5. ISSN0006-291X. PMID12788069.

Further reading[edit]



  • Iwata S, Ohashi Y, Kamiguchi K, Morimoto C (2000). 'Beta 1-integrin-mediated cell signaling in T lymphocytes'. J. Dermatol. Sci. 23 (2): 75–86. doi:10.1016/S0923-1811(99)00096-1. PMID10808124.
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). 'Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides'. Gene. 138 (1–2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID8125298.
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). 'Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library'. Gene. 200 (1–2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID9373149.
  • Hattori A, Okumura K, Nagase T, et al. (2001). 'Characterization of long cDNA clones from human adult spleen'. DNA Res. 7 (6): 357–66. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.6.357. PMID11214971.
  • Terman JR, Mao T, Pasterkamp RJ, et al. (2002). 'MICALs, a family of conserved flavoprotein oxidoreductases, function in plexin-mediated axonal repulsion'. Cell. 109 (7): 887–900. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00794-8. PMID12110185.
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). 'Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences'. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. Bibcode:2002PNAS..9916899M. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC139241. PMID12477932.
  • Weide T, Teuber J, Bayer M, Barnekow A (2003). 'MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins'. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306 (1): 79–86. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00918-5. PMID12788069.
  • Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, et al. (2003). 'The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6'. Nature. 425 (6960): 805–11. Bibcode:2003Natur.425.805M. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID14574404.
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). 'Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs'. Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID14702039.
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). 'The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)'. Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC528928. PMID15489334.
  • Fischer J, Weide T, Barnekow A (2005). 'The MICAL proteins and rab1: a possible link to the cytoskeleton?'. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 328 (2): 415–23. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.12.182. PMID15694364.
  • Bayer M, Fischer J, Kremerskothen J, et al. (2006). 'Identification and characterization of Iporin as a novel interaction partner for rab1'. BMC Cell Biol. 6 (1): 15. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-6-15. PMC1079803. PMID15796781.
  • Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). 'Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks'. Cell. 127 (3): 635–48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID17081983. S2CID7827573.
  • Jin X, Zhang J, Dai H, et al. (2007). 'Investigation of the four cooperative unfolding units existing in the MICAL-1 CH domain'. Biophys. Chem. 129 (2–3): 269–78. doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2007.06.008. PMID17662518.


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