Fork

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Fork definition, an instrument having two or more prongs or tines, for holding, lifting, etc., as an implement for handling food or any of various agricultural tools. Fork creates a new process by duplicating the calling process. The new process is referred to as the child process. The calling process is referred to as the parent process. The child process and the parent process run in separate memory spaces. Fork creates a new process by duplicating the calling process. The new process is referred to as the child process. The calling process is referred to as the parent process. The child process and the parent process run in separate memory spaces.

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Tues - Fri 12 noon - 4pm, Saturday 10am - 2pm
Closed Sun/Mon

33029 Road 222, Suite B
North Fork, CA 93643

Retail Shop: (559) 877-4884
Massage appt: (559) 474-4877

Jennie's Garden is a new type of specialty shop in the Sierra Foothills town of North Fork, CA (between Fresno & Yosemite). The shop, located on Main Street in the center of downtown, offers high quality handmade and homegrown items made in the USA by 77 (and counting!) talented artisans, many of which are local folks who live and work nearby.
Jennie's Garden offers a large selection of hand-crafted gift and home decor products including jewelry, tee shirts, music cds, blankets, clothing, books, framed photos of the Sierra, photo greeting cards, local food, a wide range of body care products, beautiful pottery, etc. New items come in every week! Something for everyone. All in a pleasant small town atmosphere.

Certified massage therapy sessions are also offered on site. Swedish, sports, reiki, deep tissue massage and reflexology appointments are available. Stop by or call to make an appointment.
Make your gift giving easier any time of year: Store & massage gift certificates are available for purchase.

Jennie's Garden Family of Artisans:

Amy's Natural Creations ~ Gemstone Jewelry
Anita Luise
~Dichroic Glass Jewelry, Photo Cards & Coasters
Anna Lindsey
~ Aprons, Pot Holders, Tortilla Warmers, Fleece Throws, Baby Pads
Anne Bredon
~ Jewelry, Beadwork, Weavings
Bandit Brand
~ Tee Shirts
Barbara Ulman
~ Music CDs (Local Musician)
Blossom Trail Honey
~ Local Unfiltered Raw Honey
Bluebird Trail Farm
~ Local Olive Oil, Balsamic Vinegar, Olive Oil Soap
Carol's Candies
~ English Toffee, Peanut Butter Cups, Chocolate Almonds, etc
Cawny's Country Comforts
~ Lotions, Powders, Milk Soap, Creams, Body Oil
Chris Stanley
~Ceramic Figurines, Crochet Items
Deb McGuire ~ Tea Novelties/Gift Items, Note Cards
Dee's Jewelry Studio
~ Jewelry,
Dichroic glass, Gemstones, Beads
Diana Polly ~Mixed Media Greeting Cards & Home Decor
Diann Miller
~ Jewelry

Dianne Conway
~ All-Weather Crochet Rugs, Home Accessories
Don Grove
~ Photography, Photo Art Cards
Doug's Clocks
~ Unique Wall Clocks
Downhome Handspun Fibers
~ Mohair Fiber Hats, Fiber Rugs, Bags, Chair Pads
Doug Waltner
~ Fine Wood African Tongue Drums, Wooden Puzzle Boxes
D.U.D.E.S.
~ Wooden Bat Boxes, Screech Owl Boxes, Bluebird Houses, etc.
Elizabeth Crafts
~ Crochet & Sewn Dolls, Puppets, Toy Animals, Home Decor
eZENtial Jewelry ~ Essential Oil Diffuser Necklaces
Farm Girls
~ Jersey Milk Soap, Natural Sunscreen & Bug Balm, Bath Bombs
Friends of the North Fork Library ~ Famous 9 Bean Soup Mix

Gale Armstrong ~ Photo Art Cards
Gay Abarbanell
~ Photography, Photo Art Cards, House plants
Good Medicine (Deb & Frank Sipes)
~ Music CDs (Local Musicians)
Good Shnit, The ~
Lip Balms, Trauma Salve, Crochet Purses & Bikini Tops
Harmonic Healer (Michael Freemire) ~ Crystals, Jewelry, Healing Tuning Forks
Heart of Ang (Angeline DeHart)
~ Accessories & Home Decor
Heather's Lace ~ Crocheted & Tatted Doilies, Table Linens, Home Decor
Jean Butterfield ~ Music CDs (Local Musician)
Jennifer Bulawksy
~ Crochet/Knit Scarves, Hats, Headbands, etc
Jennifer Coon
~ Hand Painted T-Shirts & Onesies, Tote Bags, Painted Rocks
Joanne Freemire
~ Photography, Note Cards
Juju Beads
~ Hammered Metal Jewelry
Karen Adler
~ Candy, Cookies, Children's Books (Local Author)
Kathy Ellis
~ Woodcrafts, Embroidered Tees & Ball Caps
Kern Family Farm
~ Canvas Tote Bags
KT Lee Alpaca
~ Alapaca Fiber Socks, Insoles, Cat Toys & Sachets
Lanyards & More
~ Colorful Fabric Lanyards, Wine Bags, Home Decor
Linda Mae Designs
~ Jewelry
Lisa McKee ~ Nature Photography, Note Cards, Mugs
Log & Rustic Woodworks
~Owls, Picture Frames, Signs, Tea Lite Holders, Crochet
Lupe Thompson
~ Sewn & Quilted Home Decor
Madeline's Creations
~ Dichroic Glass Jewelry, Photos, Photo Cards & Home Decor
Marcia Freedman ~ Books about the Mountain Area (Local Author)
Marcia’s Watercolors
~ Watercolor Paintings

Marcie Tipton ~ Home Decor
Marybeth Harrison
~ North Fork Note Cards, Mugs, Magnets, Postcards, Paintings
Mary Morgan
~ Ukrainian Easter Eggs
McGowan’s Mountain
~ Woodcrafts, Potting Benches
Michael J. Costa Photography
~ Photo Art Cards
Michael Simonian
~ Photo Art Cards, North Fork Postcards, Glass/Mirror Decor
Nancy's Threads
~ Cloth Tote/Shopping Bags, Aprons, Lacy Dreamcatchers
NobleTouch Massage Therapy,
CMT ~ Swedish, Deep Tissue, Reiki, Sports
NobleTouch Naturals
~ Natural Soap, Salves/Balms, Candles, Plants, Home Decor
North Fork Artists' Loft
~ Yard Flags & a variety of crafts
North Fork Women’s Club
~ Crochet/Knit clothing, Home Decor, Food Gifts
Paola Stablein
~ Photography, Note Cards
Pat Simmons
~ Crochet Shawls, Throws, Gloves, Scarves, Hats, Device Covers
Penelope Critchlow
~ Hand Woven Scarves, Hats
PHA Photos
~ Photography, Books (Local Author)
Raven's Nest (Vicki Young)
~ Airplant Decor, Jewelry
Rikk Hansen
~ Nature Photography
Ruth Rosenthal Poet
~ Poetry Books (Local Author/Poet)
Santina's Stuff
~ Natural Soap, Lip Balms, Unique Aprons
Serendipity Tie Dye & Crochet
~ Tee Shirts, Pillow cases, Headbands, Purses
Sierra Vista Scenic Byway Association
~ Tee Shirts, Byway Audio Tour CDs
Suri-Alpaca
~ Alpaca fiber Socks, Hats, Scarves, Alpaca Yarn & Craft Kits
Tagress Family Pottery
~ Mugs, Kitchenware, Vases, Teapots, Windchimes
Theresa Haden ~ Handpainted Home Decor
Tracy Moreida
~ Jewelry, Barrettes, Aprons,Tote Bags, Bird Feeders
Tu Tu's Treats
~ Jams, Jelly, Biscotti, BBQ Sauce, Baking Mixes

Vicki's Fun Crafts
~ Seasonal & Everyday Home Decor & Accessories, Jewelry
You Sweet Thing Jelly
~ Jelly, Jam

Melobase Enjoy your own music with Melobase, a creativity tool for recording, listening. $14.99 DOWNLOAD Airtable Airtable offers an easy way to create your own organizational databases. Melobase. Melobase Desktop 1.6 is now available. What's new: Added the ability to record a sequence without time signature; Added the ability to record a sequence with specified time signature and tempo values; Added the ability to change the time signature and tempo during playback and recording sessions; Added the ability to show or hide the database. Record your sequences with a metronome and an advanced tap-tempo technique. If desired, convert your recorded sequence to multiple tracks. Edit your sequences in order to improve the content of your database using either the piano roll or the list of MIDI events. Synchronize the content of your database between your devices.

Find us in between the Visitors Center/The Looney Bin gallery and 'North Fork Hardware' on Main Street (Road 222) in downtown North Fork.
We are the store with the light green door & the quirky purple butterfly.


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A timeline chart of how Linux distributions have forked.

In software engineering, a project fork happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software. The term often implies not merely a development branch, but also a split in the developer community, a form of schism.[1]

Free and open-source software is that which, by definition, may be forked from the original development team without prior permission, without violating copyright law. However, licensed forks of proprietary software (e.g.Unix) also happen.

Etymology[edit]

The word 'fork' has been used to mean 'to divide in branches, go separate ways' as early as the 14th century.[2] In the software environment, the word evokes the fork system call, which causes a running process to split itself into two (almost) identical copies that (typically) diverge to perform different tasks.[3]

In the context of software development, 'fork' was used in the sense of creating a revision control 'branch' by Eric Allman as early as 1980, in the context of SCCS:[4]

Creating a branch 'forks off' a version of the program.

The term was in use on Usenet by 1983 for the process of creating a subgroup to move topics of discussion to.[5]

'Fork' is not known to have been used in the sense of a community schism during the origins of Lucid Emacs (now XEmacs) (1991) or the BSDs (1993–1994); Russ Nelson used the term 'shattering' for this sort of fork in 1993, attributing it to John Gilmore.[6] However, 'fork' was in use in the present sense by 1995 to describe the XEmacs split,[7] and was an understood usage in the GNU Project by 1996.[8]

Forking of free and open-source software[edit]

Free and open-source software may be legally forked without prior approval of those currently developing, managing, or distributing the software per both The Free Software Definition and The Open Source Definition:[9]

The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this, you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.

Fork
— The Free Software Definition[10]

3. Derived Works: The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.

In free software, forks often result from a schism over different goals or personality clashes. In a fork, both parties assume nearly identical code bases, but typically only the larger group, or whoever controls the Web site, will retain the full original name and the associated user community. Thus, there is a reputation penalty associated with forking.[9] The relationship between the different teams can be cordial or very bitter. On the other hand, a friendly fork or a soft fork is a fork that does not intend to compete, but wants to eventually merge with the original.

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Eric S. Raymond, in his essay Homesteading the Noosphere,[12] stated that 'The most important characteristic of a fork is that it spawns competing projects that cannot later exchange code, splitting the potential developer community'. He notes in the Jargon File:[13]

Forking is considered a Bad Thing—not merely because it implies a lot of wasted effort in the future, but because forks tend to be accompanied by a great deal of strife and acrimony between the successor groups over issues of legitimacy, succession, and design direction. There is serious social pressure against forking. As a result, major forks (such as the Gnu-Emacs/XEmacs split, the fissioning of the 386BSD group into three daughter projects, and the short-lived GCC/EGCS split) are rare enough that they are remembered individually in hacker folklore.

David A. Wheeler notes[9] four possible outcomes of a fork, with examples:

  1. The death of the fork. This is by far the most common case. It is easy to declare a fork, but considerable effort to continue independent development and support.
  2. A re-merging of the fork (e.g., egcs becoming 'blessed' as the new version of gcc.)
  3. The death of the original (e.g. the X.Org Server succeeding and XFree86 dying.)
  4. Successful branching, typically with differentiation (e.g., OpenBSD and NetBSD.)

Distributed revision control (DVCS) tools have popularised a less emotive use of the term 'fork', blurring the distinction with 'branch'.[14] With a DVCS such as Mercurial or Git, the normal way to contribute to a project, is to first create a personal branch of the repository, independent of the main repository, and later seek to have your changes integrated with it. Sites such as GitHub, Bitbucket and Launchpad provide free DVCS hosting expressly supporting independent branches, such that the technical, social and financial barriers to forking a source code repository are massively reduced, and GitHub uses 'fork' as its term for this method of contribution to a project.

Forks often restart version numbering from 0.1 or 1.0 even if the original software was at version 3.0, 4.0, or 5.0. An exception is when the forked software is designed to be a drop-in replacement for the original project, e.g.MariaDB for MySQL[15] or LibreOffice for OpenOffice.org.

Forking proprietary software[edit]

In proprietary software, the copyright is usually held by the employing entity, not by the individual software developers. Proprietary code is thus more commonly forked when the owner needs to develop two or more versions, such as a windowed version and a command line version, or versions for differing operating systems, such as a word processor for IBM PC compatible machines and Macintosh computers. Generally, such internal forks will concentrate on having the same look, feel, data format, and behavior between platforms so that a user familiar with one can also be productive or share documents generated on the other. This is almost always an economic decision to generate a greater market share and thus pay back the associated extra development costs created by the fork.

A notable proprietary fork not of this kind is the many varieties of proprietary Unix—almost all derived from AT&T Unix under license and all called 'Unix', but increasingly mutually incompatible.[16]SeeUNIX wars.

The BSD licenses permit forks to become proprietary software, and copyleft proponents say that commercial incentives thus make proprietisation almost inevitable. (Copyleft licenses can, however, be circumvented via dual-licensing with a proprietary grant in the form of a Contributor License Agreement.) Examples include macOS (based on the proprietary NeXTSTEP and the open source FreeBSD), Cedega and CrossOver (proprietary forks of Wine, though CrossOver tracks Wine and contributes considerably), EnterpriseDB (a fork of PostgreSQL, adding Oracle compatibility features[17]), Supported PostgreSQL with their proprietary ESM storage system,[18] and Netezza's[19] proprietary highly scalable derivative of PostgreSQL. Some of these vendors contribute back changes to the community project, while some keep their changes as their own competitive advantages.

See also[edit]

  • Modular programming
  • Team effectiveness

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References[edit]

  1. ^'Schism', with its connotations, is a common usage, e.g.'the Lemacs/FSFmacs schism'Archived 12 December 2009 at WebCite (Jamie Zawinski, 2000), 'Behind the KOffice split'Archived 6 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Joe Brockmeier, Linux Weekly News, 2010-12-14), 'Copyright assignment - once bitten, twice shy'Archived 30 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine (Richard Hillesley, H-Online, 2010-08-06), 'Forking is a feature'Archived 29 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine (Anil Dash, 2010-09-10), 'The Great Software Schism'Archived 6 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine (Glyn Moody, Linux Journal, 2006-09-28), 'To Fork Or Not To Fork: Lessons From Ubuntu and Debian'Archived 26 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine (Benjamin Mako Hill, 2005).
  2. ^Entry 'fork' in Online Etymology DictionaryArchived 25 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^'The term fork is derived from the POSIX standard for operating systems: the system call used so that a process generates a copy of itself is called fork().' Robles, Gregorio; González-Barahona, Jesús M. (2012). A Comprehensive Study of Software Forks: Dates, Reasons and Outcomes(PDF). OSS 2012 The Eighth International Conference on Open Source Systems. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33442-9_1. Archived(PDF) from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  4. ^Allman, Eric. 'An Introduction to the Source Code Control System.'Archived 6 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine Project Ingres, University of California at Berkeley, 1980.
  5. ^Can somebody fork off a 'net.philosophy'? (John Gilmore, net.misc, 18 January 1983)
  6. ^Shattering — good or bad? (Russell Nelson, gnu.misc.discuss, 1 October 1993)
  7. ^Re: Hey Franz: 32K Windows SUCK!!!!! (Bill Dubuque, cu.cs.macl.info, 21 September 1995)
  8. ^Lignux? (Marcus G. Daniels, gnu.misc.discuss, 7 June 1996)
  9. ^ abcWhy Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS)? Look at the Numbers!: ForkingArchived 5 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine (David A. Wheeler)
  10. ^Stallman, Richard. 'The Free Software Definition'. Free Software Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  11. ^'The Open Source Definition'. The Open Source Initiative. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  12. ^Raymond, Eric S. (15 August 2002). 'Promiscuous Theory, Puritan Practice'. Archived from the original on 6 October 2006.
  13. ^ForkedArchived 8 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine (Jargon File), first added to v4.2.2Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 20 Aug 2000)
  14. ^e.g.Willis, Nathan (15 January 2015). 'An 'open governance' fork of Node.js'. LWN.net. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015. Forks are a natural part of the open development model—so much so that GitHub famously plasters a 'fork your own copy' button on almost every page. See also Nyman, Linus (2015). Understanding Code Forking in Open Source Software (Ph.D.). Hanken School of Economics. p. 57. hdl:10138/153135. Where practitioners have previously had rather narrow definitions of a fork, [..] the term now appears to be used much more broadly. Actions that would traditionally have been called a branch, a new distribution, code fragmentation, a pseudo-fork, etc. may all now be called forks by some developers. This appears to be in no insignificant part due to the broad definition and use of the term fork by GitHub.
  15. ^Forked a project, where do my version numbers start?Archived 26 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^Fear of forkingArchived 17 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine - An essay about forking in free software projects, by Rick Moen
  17. ^EnterpriseDBArchived 13 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^Fujitsu Supported PostgreSQLArchived 20 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^NetezzaArchived 13 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]

  • Right to Fork at Meatball Wiki
  • A PhD examining forking: (Nyman, 2015) 'Understanding Code Forking in Open Source Software - An examination of code forking, its effect on open source software, and how it is viewed and practiced by developers'

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