# Basic Thermodynamics Calculators

BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS 1.1 Introduction Thermodynamics is a branch of science that deals with energy in all its forms and the laws governing the transformation of energy from one form to another. Since, there are many forms of energy such as mechanical, thermal or heat, chemical, electrical, etc. Thermodynamics, science of the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy. Thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy from one place to another and from one form to another. The key concept is that heat is a form of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work.

## Basic Thermodynamics Pdf

This online calculator can solve thermodynamic equilibrium problems, such as finding the final temperature when mixing fluids, or finding the required temperature for one of the fluids to achieve a final mixed temperature. The only condition is that there should not be any phase transition (or phase change) of substances. To solve the problem, it uses the thermal equilibrium equation, more on this below.

## Thermal equilibrium equation

In the process of reaching thermodynamic equilibrium, heat is transferred from the warmer to the cooler object. Two objects are in thermal equilibrium if no heat flows between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat, that is, they both have the same temperature. This is called the zeroth law of thermodynamics. A system is said to be in thermal equilibrium with itself if the temperature within the system is spatially and temporally uniform.

The thermodynamic system is called a thermally isolated system if it does not exchange mass or heat energy with its environment. In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system in a given frame of reference remains constant — it is said to be conserved over time.

The first law of thermodynamics can be stated as follows: during an interaction between a system and its surroundings, the amount of energy gained by the system must be exactly equal to the amount of energy lost by the surroundings. In the case of a thermally isolated system, we can say that during an interaction between objects inside a system (until it reaches thermal equilibrium), the amount of energy gained by one object must be exactly equal to the amount of energy lost by another.

This is our thermal equilibrium equation.

In another form:
,
where n – number of objects in the system.

That is, the algebraic sum of all heat quantities (gained and lost) in a thermally isolated system equals zero.

If we replace heat quantities with the formula described here: Quantity of heat, we will get the following equation:

,
note that the final temperature for all substances (T1, T2, .. Tn) should be the same, because of thermal equilibrium.

This is the equation used by the calculator to find the unknown value. Also, the calculator can take into account the quantity of heat gained or lost to the surroundings. This allows a more broad range of problems to be solved.

To use the calculator, you need to correctly fill out the table describing interacting substances. The usage instructions for different scenarios are listed below the calculator.

## First Law Of Thermodynamics Calculator

arrow_upwardarrow_downwardSubstancearrow_upwardarrow_downwardMass, kgarrow_upwardarrow_downwardSpecific heat, J/kg*Carrow_upwardarrow_downwardInitial temperature, Carrow_upwardarrow_downwardFinal temperature, C